盘点10个国家的不同圣诞习俗,双语阅读
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图片 2圣诞树

美国:为圣诞老人准备饼干和牛奶

What Do People Do?

In the US, families love to set out treats for Santa on Christmas Eve.

一、人们都干些啥?

美国家庭喜欢在平安夜为圣诞老人准备点心。

Many people around the world celebrate Christmas Eve in different ways。 It is observed in many countries such as Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States。 Workers in some countries get a day off or half-day off to prepare for Christmas Day, including last-minute shopping for presents, decorations or food。 In some countries Christmas Eve is celebrated with large family meals featuring traditional Christmas dishes。 In some cultures, presents are exchanged and opened on the night of Christmas Eve。 Many homes have their Christmas trees lit up, mistletoes hung, and other Christmas decorations, such as holly and ivy, at this time of the year。

Most churches also hold candlelight services or midnight mass, which often include reenactments of the Nativity.

全世界许多人都以不同的方式来庆祝平安夜。澳大利亚、加拿大、英国和美国等许多国家都会过平安夜。有些国家的工人们会在这一天得到一天或者半天的假期,来为圣诞节那一天做准备,包括最后购买礼物、装饰物和食物。在某些国家,人们用全家吃一顿传统的圣诞大餐来庆祝平安夜。在一些文化中,人们也会在平安夜交换、拆开礼物。每年这个时候,许多家庭都点亮了他们的圣诞树、挂上了槲寄生和其他诸如冬青和常春藤等圣诞装饰物。

大多数教堂还会在午夜举行烛光弥撒,通常包含耶稣降生场面的表演。

Some people organize groups of singers who go Christmas caroling from door to door, or sing Christmas carols in public venues。 It is also a time for children in many countries around the world to hang their Christmas stockings (or pillow cases), hoping for a present to arrive from Santa Claus on Christmas Day, which is December 25 in the Gregorian calendar。 Children in France set out their shoes near a fireplace on Christmas Eve because they believe that Father Christmas (Santa Claus), also known as le Père No?l (in French), will arrive before dawn and fill them with toys, nuts and sweets。

加拿大:在平安夜打开礼物

一些人还会组织一群歌手挨家挨户、或者在公共场所唱圣诞颂歌。这个时候全世界许多国家的孩子们还会挂起自己的圣诞袜子(或者枕头套子),希望在圣诞节(公历12月25日)那天收到一份来自圣诞老人的礼物。法国的孩子们在平安夜那天把他们的鞋子放在壁炉旁边,因为他们相信圣诞老人(法语为 le Père No?l)会在天亮前到来,在他们的鞋子里装满玩具、坚果和糖果。

In Canada, families often open presents on Christmas Eve after mass. Others only open one and save the rest for Christmas Day.

Many churches hold special services during Christmas Eve, including midnight services。 These services include special choirs and sermons to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ。 Many churches also display a crèche or miniature Nativity scene。 Christmas celebrations in different countries combine the country’s cultural traditions, beliefs and superstitions with more contemporary customs, such as Santa Claus and Christmas trees。

加拿大家庭通常在平安夜做完弥撒之后打开礼物。还有些人只打开一个礼物,其余的礼物留到圣诞节当天打开。

许多教堂也会在平安夜那天举行特别活动,包括午夜活动。这些活动包括特别的唱诗班和布道活动,以此来庆祝耶稣基督的诞辰。许多教堂还会上演一幕小耶稣诞生的教堂表演( 被称之为crèche)。不同国家的圣诞庆祝活动都将那个国家的文化传统、宗教信仰和迷信与更多现代习俗结合了起来,例如圣诞老人和圣诞树等。

Many French Canadians have a huge feast after Christmas Eve mass, called a Réveillon, which lasts into the wee hours of Christmas morning.

Public Life

许多法裔加拿大人在平安夜弥撒后会举行一场巨大的盛宴,这顿名为Réveillon的年夜饭会一直持续到圣诞节的凌晨。

二、公共生活。

俄罗斯:在平安夜当天斋戒

Christmas Eve is a public holiday in countries such as the Czech Republic and Estonia。 Some banks and businesses are closed in some countries, including Austria and Germany, on Christmas Eve。 Many people in countries such as Brazil have the afternoon off work on Christmas Eve。

The fast typically lasts until after evening service or when the stars come out. After the fast, some might eat a traditional Russian dish called kutya. Kutya consists of grains, honey, and poppy seeds, shared from the same bowl to symbolize unity. No meat is allowed.

在捷克共和国和爱沙尼亚等国家,平安夜是一个公共节日。在平安夜这天,包括德国和奥地利等国家的一些银行和企业会闭门歇业。在平安夜这天,巴西等国家的许多人们下午会放假。

斋戒通常持续到平安夜弥撒之后或星星出来之时。斋戒结束后,俄罗斯人会吃一道名为kutya的传统俄罗斯菜,包括谷物、蜂蜜、罂粟籽,一家人都从一个碗里吃,以此象征团结。但是不能吃肉。

Some stores are often open late to accommodate for last-minute Christmas shopping in some cities around the world。 Schools and educational institutions are usually closed on Christmas Eve as it falls as part of either the winter (northern hemisphere) or summer (southern hemisphere) vacation period。 Airports, bus stations and train stations may be busy as many people travel to visit their families around this time of the year。

中国:送“平安果”

在全世界许多城市,一些商店会营业到很晚,从而接待人们最后一刻的圣诞购物。平安夜期间学校和教育机构通常都是关闭的,因为平安夜那天不是寒假(北半球)就是暑假(南半球)。机场、公共汽车站和火车站也许会很繁忙,因为每年的这个时候很多人都会前往探访自己的家人。

Christmas apples wrapped in cellophane are a popular holiday gift in China, which is said to be because the word "apple" sounds similar to "Christmas Eve" in Mandarin.

Background

圣诞节的“平安果”就是用玻璃纸包好的苹果,在中国是很流行的一种圣诞礼物。据说是因为苹果的“苹”和平安夜的“平”谐音。

三、平安夜的背景。

意大利:平安夜吃“七鱼宴”

Christmas Eve, also known as the Vigil of Christmas, is perceived as the culmination of the Advent season。 Christmas Eve is the day before Christmas Day and is associated with celebrating Jesus Christ’s birth, although his actual birth date has been disputed among many scholars。 However, many Christmas traditions that are around today have their roots in pre-Christian winter festivals。 These include the importance of candles and decorations made from evergreen bushes and trees, symbolizing everlasting light and life。

A huge seafood and pasta dinner is tradition for Italians on Christmas Eve. The tradition of serving seven different seafood dishes stems from the Roman Catholic practice of abstaining from meat on Christmas Eve.

平安夜也被称之为“圣诞守夜( Vigil of Christmas)”,被视为是基督降临节的高潮。平安夜是圣诞节前一天,和庆祝耶稣基督的诞辰有关--尽管他确切的生日日期在许多学者间一直存在争议。然而,今天的许多圣诞节传统都起源于耶稣之前的冬节。其中用常青树和树木制成的蜡烛和装饰物非常重要,象征着永恒的光和生命。

意大利人平安夜的传统大餐有海鲜和面食。“七鱼宴”上有七种不同的海鲜菜肴,吃海鲜的传统源于罗马天主教徒在平安夜不吃肉的做法。

In Roman times, a mid-winter festival was held。 This was a relaxing time with a lot of parties and merry making。 It was also common to give other people small gifts, such as dolls for children and candles for adults。 This festival culminated with the celebration of the winter solstice, which fell on December 25 in the Roman calendar。

丹麦:圣诞节是12月24日

在罗马时期,人们会庆祝“冬至”节。这是一个放松的日子,人们会举行很多聚会、充满了欢声笑语。给别人送一些小礼物也是非常常见的,包括送给孩子的玩偶和送给大人的蜡烛等等。这个节日在庆祝冬至(罗马历法12月25日)的时候达到了高潮。

In Denmark, people celebrate Christmas Day on December 24. The Danish also countdown to Christmas using Advent wreaths. Wreaths feature four candles, one candle lit every one of the four Sundays leading up to Christmas Eve.

Symbols

丹麦人在12月24日庆祝圣诞节。丹麦人用降临节花环来做圣诞节倒计时。降临节花环上有四支蜡烛,平安夜前的四周,每个星期日点燃一支蜡烛。

四、平安夜的象征符号。

澳大利亚:圣诞节吃冷餐

Since pagan times, it was customary to decorate with greenery on festivals, especially with holly, ivy, and mistletoe。 After some debate, the church authorities permitted it to be done on Christian festivals, at least from the early seventh century in England。 Holly and ivy were associated with good and evil, or male and female, and so were often combined。 Mistletoe has pagan associations。 For example, the druids of Gaul regarded mistletoe growing on oak trees as sent from heaven。

Whereas many picture Christmas as a cozy, snowy holiday, Australians experience Christmas in the middle of summer. Australians often have cold Christmas dinners, and on Christmas Eve, fish markets are packed with people hoping to stock up on seafood before the holiday. Apparently pavlova is also a must as a Christmas dessert.

从异教徒时代以来,节日期间用绿叶装饰都是一种习俗,特别是用冬青、常春藤和槲寄生。后来经过一些争辩,教会当局批准在基督教节日期间也可以这么干,英格兰至少从7世纪初期就可以了。冬青和常春藤象征着善和恶、或者男和女,因此经常成对出现。槲寄生有异教徒的含义。举例来说,高卢德鲁伊人认为槲寄生是从天堂来的橡树上长出来的。

尽管很多人都将圣诞节描绘成下雪的温馨节日,但澳大利亚人的圣诞节却在盛夏。澳大利亚人通常在平安夜吃冷餐,圣诞节前鱼市挤满了囤海鲜的人。奶油蛋白甜饼是澳大利亚人必吃的圣诞甜点。

Images of Santa Claus, also known as Father Christmas, snowmen, reindeer, and candy canes are seen in cards, posters, signs and other printed or marketing material associated with the Christmas celebrations。 Images of baby Jesus, the Christmas star, and other symbols associated with the religious meaning of Christmas are also seen during Christmas Eve and Christmas Day。

墨西哥:孩子们扮演玛丽和约瑟夫

在和圣诞庆祝有关的卡片、海报、标志、以及其他印刷或促销品上,我们可以看到圣诞老人、雪人、驯鹿、和拐杖糖等形象。在平安夜和圣诞节期间,我们还会看到小耶稣、圣诞星星、以及其他与圣诞节宗教意义相关的图像。

Beginning on December 16, children in Mexico go door-to-door asking if there's a symbolic "room at the inn," and on Christmas Eve, they are invited in to celebrate. The tradition is called posadas, and it concludes in Christmas parties full of food, drinks, and pi?atas.

从12月16日开始,墨西哥孩子挨家挨户地敲门问有没有“旅馆房间”,到了平安夜,孩子们会被邀请进门一起庆祝。这一传统叫作波萨达斯巡游,巡游结束后人们会举行圣诞派对,派对上有食物、饮料,还有传统墨西哥彩色装饰品pi?atas,里面装满了糖果。

挪威:从平安夜起每夜点一支蜡烛,一直到新年

In Norway, families light a candle every night starting on Christmas Eve and ending on New Year's Day. Norwegians also often exchange presents on Christmas Eve.

挪威家庭从平安夜开始,每夜点燃一支蜡烛,一直到新年才结束。挪威人通常也在平安夜交换礼物。

The gifts are brought by Santa Claus or by small gnomes called Nisse, folkloric characters historically responsible for the prosperity of the farm and family who began being thought of as the bearers of Christmas gifts in the mid 19th century.

给人们送来礼物的有圣诞老人,还有小矮人尼森。传说尼森小矮人在历史上给农场和家庭带来了繁荣,19世纪中期,尼森小矮人开始被挪威家庭视为圣诞礼物的搬运工。

冰岛:在平安夜交换书籍

Iceland has the tradition of exchanging books on Christmas Eve then spending the evening reading them. The holiday season starts off with the delivery of the Bokatidindi, which is a catalogue of every single book published in Iceland. The tradition began in during WWII. Paper was one of the few commodities not rationed, and Icelanders could indulge in their love of books (and in giving books as gifts) as they weren't in short supply.

冰岛有在平安夜交换书籍和看书的传统。冰岛人的圣诞节是以寄出Bokatidindi开始的,Bokatidindi是在冰岛出版的每一本书的商品目录。该传统是从二战期间开始的。当时纸张是少数几种没有定量配给的商品,因为书籍供应充足,冰岛人就可以尽情地读书和送书当礼物。

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